Over the last ten years, politicians and stakeholders alike have focused on better production and use of energy. Nevertheless, energy is not the only resource which can have environmental, economic and geopolitical impacts. All raw materials can play a role, albeit to a different extent. For example, whilst rare earths are scarce in Europe, many other raw materials, such as limestone and aggregates are abundantly available. In my view, it is therefore wrong to consider that a strategy which is valid for one material can apply to all others. In addition, to consider recycling as the objective for “resource efficiency” would also lead to erroneous decisions. This is why policies should promote the efficient use of locally available materials for a desired purpose.