ECP publications

Eurocodes

Safety of structures: EN 1990 Basis of Structural Design provides the framework for the suite of Eurocodes, which includes the design of structures as well as geotechnical and seismic design. The first generation of Eurocodes will contain some elements of choice for countries, although recommendations will usually be given for the choices. One exception lies in EN 1990, in which the criteria for choosing between three forms of load combinations for structures  are not specified. BIBM, CEMBUREAU and ERMCO commissioned Prof. Gulvanessian, as convenor of the CEN TC 250 Project Team Basis of Structural Design (EN 1990), to review the implications of the possible choices. The final report was reviewed independently and separately by Prof. Calgaro, Prof. Jensen and Prof. Spehl, members of the same CEN Project Team.

Commentary to Eurocode 2Like many current national codes in Europe, Eurocode 2 (EC 2) for concrete structures draws heavily on the CEB Model Code. And yet the presentation and terminology, conditioned by the agreed format for Eurocodes, might obscure the similarities to many national codes. Also EC 2 in common with other Eurocodes, tends to be general in character and this might present difficulty to some designers at least initially. The problems of coming to terms with a new set of codes by busy practising engineers cannot be underestimated. This is the backdrop to the publication of ‘Commentary and Worked Examples to EC 2’ by Professor Mancini and his colleagues. Commissioned by CEMBUREAU, BIBM, EFCA and ERMCO this publication should prove immensely valuable to designers in discovering the background to many of the code requirements. This publication will assist in building confidence in the new code, which offers tools for the design of economic and innovative concrete structures. The publication brings together many of the documents produced by the Project Team during the development of the code. The document is rich in theoretical explanations and draws on much recent research. Comparisons with the ENV stage of EC2 are also provided in a number of cases. The chapter on EN 1990 (Basis of structural design) is an added bonus and will be appreciated by practioners. Worked examples further illustrate the application of the code and should promote understanding. The commentary will prove an authentic companion to EC 2 and deserves every success.

Worked examples for Eurocode 2: Like many current national codes in Europe, Eurocode 2 (EC 2) for concrete structures draws heavily on the CEB Model Code. And yet the presentation and terminology, conditioned by the agreed format for Eurocodes, might obscure the similarities to many national codes. Also EC 2 in common with other Eurocodes, tends to be general in character and this might present difficulty to some designers at least initially. The problems of coming to terms with a new set of codes by busy practising engineers cannot be underestimated. This is the backdrop to the publication of ‘Commentary and Worked Examples to EC 2’ by Professor Mancini and his colleagues. Commissioned by CEMBUREAU, BIBM, EFCA and ERMCO this publication should prove immensely valuable to designers in discovering the background to many of the code requirements. This publication will assist in building confidence in the new code, which offers tools for the design of economic and innovative concrete structures. The publication brings together many of the documents produced by the Project Team during the development of the code. The document is rich in theoretical explanations and draws on much recent research. Comparisons with the ENV stage of EC2 are also provided in a number of cases. The chapter on EN 1990 (Basis of structural design) is an added bonus and will be appreciated by practioners. Worked examples further illustrate the application of the code and should promote understanding. The commentary will prove an authentic companion to EC 2 and deserves every success.


Energy efficiency

Concrete for energy efficient & comfortable buildings: A heavy material such as concrete is capable of buffering a large part of the free heat gains, such as solar radiation and heat. Concrete can therefore decrease energy consumption as well as improve thermal comfort. A taskforce of three principal organisations related to concrete construction (CEMBUREAU/BIBM/ ERMCO) has investigated and documented the advantages of heavy buildings. Energy balance calculations were undertaken for buildings of heavy and lightweight construction in various European climates, for both residential and office circumstances. The results show that a solid residential building requires 2-7% less bought energy for heating compared to a building of lightweight construction. This has significant economical and environmental impacts. Where cooling is required, the energy savings are even larger and cooling facilities can be avoided altogether in many heavy buildings. The advantages are further increased if the effect of thermal mass is actively taken into account in the building design. An information database of the role of concrete in energy efficient buildings including a portfolio of energy efficient concrete buildings has been compiled. National adaptations: Dutch - Irish - Italian - Polish - Swedish - Turkish

General guidelines for using thermal mass in concrete buildings: In  warm  climates,  the  thermal  mass  in  concrete  and masonry  helps  provide  a  comfortable  living environment  and  reduce  overheating  problems, whilst  in  cooler  climates  it  can  be  used  to  absorb  solar gains  and  reduce  the  need  for  heating  energy. As  the  basic  design  requirements  for  both  seasons are  not  incompatible,  housing  in  more  temperate climates  can  be  designed  to  take  advantage  of thermal  mass  on  a  year–round  basis.  Examples  of such  regions  include  much  of  northern  Europe  and the  UK. National adaptations: Italian


Fire safety

Comprehensive fire protection and safety with concrete: This document was produced by CEMBUREAU, BIBM and ERMCO. Aimed at specifiers, regulators, building owners, fire authorities, insurance companies and the general public, it shows how concrete can be used to provide comprehensive fire protection including life safety, protection of property and of the environment. National adaptations: Austrian - Czech - German - French - Irish - Italian - Dutch - Polish - Swedish - Turkish

Improving fire safety in tunnels: Road and railway tunnels as well as underpasses can pose risk to the public. Appropriate choice of materials and design elp to minimise the risk. Recent high-profile tunnel fires in Europe have  demonstrated  the  need  for  appropriate choice of materials for tunnel construction to ensure high safety and reliable availability to traffic. These fires are inevitably of great intensity leading to structural damage and even loss of life. National adaptations: French - German - Italian - Portuguese - Turkish


Guidelines

The European Guidelines for self-compacting concrete: In 2002 EFNARC published their “Specification & Guidelines for Self-Compacting concrete” which, at that time, provided state of the art information for producers and users. Since then, much additional technical information on SCC has been published but European design, product and construction standards do not yet specifically refer to SCC and for site applications this has limited its wider acceptance, especially by specifiers and purchasers. In 1994 five European organisations (BIBM, CEMBUREAU, ERMCO, EFCA and EFNARC), all dedicated to the promotion of advanced materials and systems for the supply and use of concrete, created a “European Project Group” to review current best practice and produce a new document covering all aspects of SCC. This document “The European Guidelines for Self Compacting Concrete” serves to particularly address those issues related to the absence of European specifications, standards and agreed test methods. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. It is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested reinforcement. The hardened concrete is dense, homogeneous and has the same engineering properties and durability as traditional vibrated concrete. Concrete that requires little vibration or compaction has been used in Europe since the early 1970s but self-compacting concrete was not developed until the late 1980’s in Japan. In Europe it was probably first used in civil works for transportation networks in Sweden in the mid1990’s. The EC funded a multi-national, industry lead project “SCC” 1997-2000 and since then SCC has found increasing use in all European countries. Self-compacting concrete offers a rapid rate of concrete placement, with faster construction times and ease of flow around congested reinforcement. The fluidity and segregation resistance of SCC ensures a high level of homogeneity, minimal concrete voids and uniform concrete strength, providing the potential for a superior level of finish and durability to the structure. SCC is often produced with low water-cement ratio providing the potential for high early strength, earlier demoulding and faster use of elements and structures. The elimination of vibrating equipment improves the environment on and near construction and precast sites where concrete is being placed, reducing the exposure of workers to noise and vibration. The improved construction practice and performance, combined with the health and safety benefits, make SCC a very attractive solution for both precast concrete and civil engineering construction.


Sustainable construction

Let's speak Sustainable Construction!: The Common Language is a joint project between the Architects Council of Europe (ACE) and the European Concrete Platform (ECP) with the aim of producing a toolkit refered to as a Common Language for Sustainable Construction. The purpose of this tool is to ensure a common understanding of the terminology used within the framework of sustainable construction. It is intended that the finalised version will be used by the construction sector, by policy-makers at national and European levels and for communications, educational and training purposes within the sectors directly concerned. The European Economic and Social Committee has also become actively involved in the project by translating the glossary into all the official EU languages and publishing a book containg the English, French, German and Spanish versions. All other languages are also now available in PDF format
  • Click here to download the publication in English, French, German and Spanish
  • Click here to download the publication in English, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish
  • Click here to download the publication in English, French, German and Dutch
  • Click here to download the publication in English, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian
  • Click here to download the publication in English, Greek, Maltese and Slovenian
  • Click here to download the publication in English, Danish, Finnish and Swedish
  • Click here to download the publication in English, Czech, Polish and Slovak
  • Click here to download the publication in English, Bulgarian, Hungarian and Romanian

Sustainable benefits of concrete structures: Buildings account for around 40% of energy consumption in the European Union. Increased awareness of the role of the built environment in maintaining the sensitive balance between man and nature has placed Sustainability at the heart of modern construction and design. A sustainable approach to construction brings lasting environmental, social and economic benefits to society. Concrete has valuable inherent properties that can significantly contribute to the above-mentioned three pillars of sustainable construction for the benefit of people and society. Full publication - Executive Summary - Serbian Version

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